DEPIGMENTING AGENT MELANOTOKSIK PADA PENGOBATAN MELASMA

Winawati Eka Putri, Yuli Kurniawati, Tantawi Djauhari

Abstract


Human skin color is determined by melanin pigment,either eumelanin or feomelanin.
Melanogenesis is a melanin synthesized process that is initiated with tirosin oxidation to DOPAquinone
by tirosinase, and then auto-oxidation to DOPA and DOPAchrome. Eumelanin are formed from
DOPAchrome, while pheomelanin from DOPAquinone with the presence of cysteine or gluthathione.
Hyperpigmentation disorders like melasma, are difficult to treat especially in dark skinned individuals.
Treatment of melasma can be topical or physical. Topical agent can use depigmenting agent, either
individual or combination with other. Depigmenting agent can be melanotoxic or toxic to melanocyte
which can be cell killing or cell damage. Hydroquinone, monomethyl of hydroqunone, N-acetyl-4-Scysteaminylphenol
,and
azelaic
acid
are
depigmenting
agents
melanotoxic.
Majority
of
those
agents
act
as tirosinase inhibitors which cause deactivation of tirosinase. The use of those agents in combination
are better to minimalize side effect of agents.


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